ecology principles capra
Global capitalism does not alleviate poverty and social exclusion; on the contrary, it exacerbates them.
The central enterprise of current economic theory and practice -the striving for continuing, undifferentiated economic growth- is clearly unsustainable, since unlimited expansion on a finite planet can only lead to catastrophe.
One of the tenets of neoliberalism is that poor countries should concentrate on producing a few special goods for export in order to obtain foreign exchange, and should import most other commodities. This emphasis has led to the rapid depletion of the natural resources required to produce export crops in country after country. As ecologist and agricultural activist Vandana Shiva points outs, the impact of climate instability and ozone depletion is born disproportionately by the South, where most regions depend on agriculture and where slight changes in climate can totally destroy rural live-hoods.
In addition to its economic instability, the current form global capitalism is ecologically and socially unsustainable, and hence not viable in the long run. Resentment against economic globalization is growing rapidly in all parts of the world. The ultimate fate of global capitalism may well be, as Manuel Castells puts its:
the social, cultural and political rejection by large numbers of people around the world of an Automaton whose logic either ignores or devalues their humanity.
It is an ecological alternative. known variously as organic farming, sustainable agriculture or agroecology. When farmers grow crops “organically“, they use technologies based on ecological knowledge rather than chemistry or genetic engineering to increase yields, control pests, and build soil fertility. They plant a variety of crops, rotating them so that insects are attracted to one crop will disappear with the next.
Ecological sustainability is an essential component of the core values that form the basis for reshaping the globalization. Indeed, creating sustainable communities is the great challenge of our time.
The concept of sustainability was introduced in the early 1980’s by Lester Brown, founder of Worldwatch Institute, who defined a sustainable society as one that is able to satisfy its needs without diminishing the chances of future generations. [BROWN, Lester (1981): Building a sustainable society. Norton. New York]
Several years later, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (the “Bruntland Report“) used the same definition to present the notion of sustainable development:
Humankind has the ability to achieve sustainable development -to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs“. [WORLD COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (1987): Our Common Future. Oxford University Press. New York]
Specifically, there are six principles of ecology that are critical to sustaining life: networks, cycles, solar energy, partnership, diversity and dynamic balance (Fig.1).
Notes was taken from:
CAPRA, Fritjof (2002): The Hidden Connections: integrating the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life into a science of sustainability. Anchor Books. New York.

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